Celebrity Blog Post (Make up Assignment)

Maggie Kycia

Miley Cyrus is one of the most famous teen pop stars in our generation. Starting off her career starring in the Disney Channel original show “Hannah Montana” Cyrus gained a significantly large fan base in the younger generation, and later became famous for her own music. Now age 20, she has left far behind her Disney Channel “good girl” persona and shown the world who she really is; a very edgy, wild girl who will do and say whatever she wants, and doesn’t care what anyone thinks about her. Twitter is a medium that helps her to convey her thoughts and opinions, and also to affirm or deny claims made publically about her.  Over the past week some of her interesting tweets have included mostly tweets are retweets about the recent video she posted of herself “twerking” while wearing a unicorn suit on the Internet. As can be predicted, the video soon became viral and was being talked about across the Internet. Miley is loving the attention and the feedback she is getting from the video, or at least that is the way it appears from her tweets. Other celebrities, including Will.i.am from the Black Eyed Peas, Ryan Seacrest, Nelly, and even basketball player LeBron James have tweeted about Miley’s “twerk” video, and she retweeted them for her own followers to see. I feel that Miley is resorting to these silly antics because she has not been in the spotlight for her music for some time. After her show on Disney Channel was cancelled, she fell out of the public eye and has not really been back in since. I believe that she uses videos such as her “Unicorn Twerk” video, to gain publicity, and she uses her twitter to help perpetuate that viral attention.  I believe that Miley has been more hurt by the media than anything, because the media loves to expose scandals involving young stars. They do what they can to twist Miley’s image into a rebellious, party loving teen who has bad moral values, and she does not do much to dispute this portrayal. While Miley still has a solid fan base who will support her through any phase, she also has a significant amount of negative public attention on the internet, mostly on blogs and celebrity gossip websites. Most of Miley’s fan base includes younger children who would have watched her Disney television show, so this group would not see media coverage of her. However, their parents would, and the kinds of things exposed about her by the media, in addition to the way she presents herself on twitter, would make most parents think twice about letting their children follow her and look up to her as a role model.



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Jenna Perrino – Extra Credit Question #2

Jenna Perrino

Word Count: 493


Television is a medium that is hugely popular with our society. It gives its’ audience information and entertainment. Throughout history, broadcasting companies have always decided on what programs would be aired on television to the public. Convergence of the medias has questioned whether this should be changed or not. New technology has formed much more participation and democratic views towards television. A new approach of letting the audience speak their minds and have their opinion count is discussed in Henry Jenkins article “Democratizing Television.” This approach allows viewers to vote and take advantage of what they would like to watch.


Television has come a long way from the “golden era” of American television of the 1960s to 1980s. “The “golden age” of American television generally refers to the proliferation of original and classic dramas produced for live television during America’s postwar years.” These new shows such as game shows and soap operas dominated network television’s prime time schedule. As the population grew and expanded, television became a popular interest. Televisions had a few channels, shows, and movies available. “These “Golden age” dramas became the ideal marketing vehicle for major U.S corporations seeking to display their products favorably before a national audience.” At the time, the rise of television seemed enormous and unbelievable. Television has changed dramatically in today’s society. The traditional cable/satellite TV in the home now has hundreds of channels, movies, and shows that range from every genre. One is able to even record shows on the television and go back and watch it later. The advance in technology has allowed television in our society to become accessible all the time. This can be showed. Through the computer or other devices, people can access any show or movie they want, in any format, anywhere. The traditional cable/satellite TV in the home and the online format are available to us 24 hours a day, unlike the “golden age”. When accessing television shows or movies through an online format it allows the audience to participate and promote shows which is what “democratizing television” is all about.


Social media sites like YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter are extremely affective in helping to enhance participation and democracy. They are available to everyone to use, which creates a huge audience. These sites allow individuals to have a voice and give them the chance to express themselves to other people. YouTube is a video-sharing website where users can upload, view, and share videos. Viewers can even post comments on videos to share opinions and interest with others. Facebook and Twitter also allow people to post their ideas, photos, and other aspects to the public. These media sites encourage people to spread their thoughts, opinions, and ideas instantaneously. It gives them the freedom, power, and chance to connect with others all around the world. These sites give everyone an equal opportunity to express himself or herself, which is why it enhances participation and democracy.

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Extra Credit Question #2- Melissa Rubio

Melissa Rubio

Total Word Count: 612

child-television_2322538bTo ‘’democratize television” is described in the required reading as “using media to further democratic ends and to create an environment beneficial to the democratic process through unity, civil discourse and understanding” (Currents in Communication, King). Television has long since been a medium that has had the influence of influencing people’s environment and opinions. The idea behind this concept is to allow people to speak their opinions and for the public to decide what they want to hear, rather than what the CEO’s want to show for ratings. According to an online source, “During the early days of television, access to spectrum determined who owned and operated the networks. CBS and ABC became the gatekeepers of attention — whether it was through 60 Minutes, Wide World of Sports or some other such program. Hit programs essentially ensured that viewers “attention” switched from one channel to another, and with it, the advertising dollars”. For example YouTube120911085416-new-youtube-ios-app-story-top is an online forum where people can submit videos talking about pretty much every and any topic that exists. Democratizing television allows the voiceless to finally have a voice. It is similar to the watchdog function that people expect journalist to have.

Henry Jenkins, in his essay Democratizing Television, argued that if a channel was in fact democratic, it would need to be outside the media circle and would be calling for reform of the media circle. I agree with the point where he says that in the 1990’s, digital media was going to liberate us from the tyranny of mass media, making it individualized. The uses of things like iPads, iPods, and other mp3 players have made it easier for people to ‘personalize’ their products. It has set people apart from the mass media. The “Digital Revolution”, as it has been known, is recognized as the “new age of individualism”.  I think that sites like Youtube and Facebook have created a world where people can make their own videos put up their own photos for others to view. Not only do people use digital media for their personal use, but companies use them to target a certain group of people and get their message out, loud and clear. The social networking sites like Facebook andtwitter.birds_-e1359402652714 Twitter help promote the idea of democratizing television. When something goes viral and starts trending, it helps promote messages that are on sites like YouTube.

more-people-watch-video-on-computers-once-a-day-than-watch-tv-once-a-day.jpgTelevision has been for a while now, controlled by a select group of media corporations. What is shocking is that television is something that supposedly broadcasts all kinds of shows, but the big networks carefully select the shows that are aired. So how is something so public controlled by so few? Media corporations, like ABC, for example, put pilots online for the public to get a feel and then buy a subscription for it. TV producers are looking to pull in a profit at the beginning of the season of a show and with the internet and DVDs, they could get a profit straight from the consumer, thus cutting out the distribution costs. Something that may not be ideal about this idea of democratizing television is that there is no fool proof way to filter out the things that you may or may not want to hear; views that you may or may not agree with. But it has been said that, that is the price the public must pay to be able to speak freely. We live in a world where technology is constantly changing and moving forward, so it only seems natural that the democratization of television continue, with all its good and bad traits.

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Sara Killough (Extra Credit – Question 2)

494 Words 

            In today’s world, the technology media circulation is inescapable, for just about everyone in society is connected in this millenniums’ digital technology and is sometimes referred to as “democratizing television.” As mentioned in the required reading, the idea of enabling audience generated content (feedback) and participating in-group collaboration has opened new doors in the type of media being produced for the public to see. Known as, the Digital Revolution, the reading says today’s world begins the “new age of individualism” which is easily exemplified by websites like YouTubeImage where individuals can create their own videos, montages, slide shows, etc. and post them for the public to see. With having such accessible and easy technology to use, the urge of media participation is more desirable and circulates much quicker than it use to.

Although technology is often used for personal use, it is also used by companies to help target audiences and obtain their attention in a positive way, for the media world enables many outlets to connect with consumers. Convergence is a term used by the book to explain how companies implement a flow of content across multiple media channels. In return they hope to develop multiple ways of selling to consumers (email, television commercials, billboards, etc.), develop customer loyalty, and help shape consumer behavior. These companies strive to collectively change the marketplace, especially by getting feedback from participating consumers whom they hope to hear from.

The idea of watching TV online or the traditional cable/satellite way has taken over this media world. For at any time of the day, one is able to watch videos, shows, or movies from anywhere they are depending on what type of mobile technology they have. ImageObviously, this type of accessibility is much different from the 1960s and 80s, for at those times TV was just emerging into the media market and raising awareness/excitement for consumers. There were limited amount of channels, series, and movies available on the everyday television set. The “Golden Era of American Television” emerged at this time though, opening many new doors in the media world and introducing the ideas of combining theater, radio, and filmmaking. What seemed so new and outstanding then is nothing compared to the options today.Image Now, people can access the Internet, video games, order movies, etc. from their television at home with little to no effort. 

As mentioned before, YouTube has become an Internet sensation for video posting and blogging. It is on sites like this that people have the chance to act/speak freely and create things that they want to share worldwide. By doing this people can see a wide array of point-of views, as well as educate themselves on things they might have missed that were previously aired on TV, etc. I think the use of social media is a very powerful thing and it can be used in both positive and negative ways; however, in today’s world, without such things one would be lost. 

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Final Exam-Question #1

By:Jeffrey Chase

Word Count:538

Final Exam

Since the 1700’s, when New World colonists were fighting England in the Revolutionary War, newspapers have played significant roles in communicating to the press (King, 317). Once the revolutionary war began in 1775, Newspapers began to reach Americans attention when there was talk of separation from England. Our founding fathers felt that, “a free and unencumbered press was considered critical to self-government.” (King, 319) By 1791 first Amendment of the United States constitution was passed and granted freedom of speech and press. By the early 1800’s, newspapers in the United States became the most vital medium. While these newspapers grew other technology advances were created. The first major technology advancement was the creation of the telegraph by Samuel Morse. The telegraph essentially laid the foundation for electronic communication, and allowed communication over massive distances, which gave the telephone, it’s beginning. The second major advancement was the Linotype in 1886. This allowed for the text to be sent across a line and give other users access to information quicker. Very quickly Newspapers began to expand and several jobs were needed.

By the 20th century, due to the technological advancement in television and radio, newspapers have begun to see a major decline. In the book Currents of Communication, “The united Stated had 267 fewer newspapers in 1990 that it had in 1940.”(King, 321) With the convergence of the radio and television newspapers have struggled in keeping up with this transformation of media coverage. This has forced major news organizations to take different approaches of experimenting to make newspapers more feasible. The business model for newspapers has changed drastically as journalists need to understand media and Internet. With the advent of Internet and the instant access of communication fewer and fewer people are willing to wait for news. The Internet has enabled thousands of individuals to communicate with one another and get information a lot quicker. While newspapers must compete with these mediums, more images and catchy colors with catchy headlines appear as it try’s to catch the people eye.


The Baltimroe Sun uses the Internet informs the press about news in sports, politics, business, life, health, entertainment, and events. With several articles they allow several places for people to post their opinions and comments on articles and videos. Not only do they have opinion and comment posts they have blog reactions, which allows a person to personally give a video reactions, and in result allows people to get a better grasp of the story. The homepage on the Sun has several advertisements, videos and pictures that make the homepage more appealing. There are also “Hot Topics” which focuses on upcoming releases of movies and important events that are upcoming, like the Preakness. Lastly the Sun connects major headline news to other major media outlets such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. With the other media outlets, the Sun is able to connect to people through images and quick headline news, which people like on Facebook, and is reposted to newsfeeds which hundreds of people are exposed to. The reason I think they use new media in technology is to keep people up to date and informed with the major news in a fun and attractive way so people are continuously interested in what is happening.


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Final Exam: Democratizing Television

Justin Shaw…Word Count: 820

“Democratizing Television” encompasses the opportunities television companies have to encourage the active participation of young people to participate in a television programs, production, selection, and distribution, along with the obstacles those companies face, due to the politics in the industry. The aim of Democratizing television is to use the dominant medium that is television to give young people a voice, like the Internet does.

The opportunities television companies have to Democratize television are through the convergence of people. Currents In Communications states convergence represents, “a move from medium- specific content toward content that flows across multiple media channels, toward the increased interdependence of communications systems, toward multiple ways of accessing media content, and toward top-down corporate media and bottom-up participatory culture”(279).  This convergence enables consumers to have their favorite television network be more responsive to their tastes and interests. It also brings upon a coming media age that is a, “feast of niches and specialties”(280) that is an era of customized and interactive content which would appeal to the highest ambitions of the participators. Convergence creates multiple ways of selling content to consumers, and also cements consumer loyalty. It differs from the traditional television selling, which broadcast to a general portion of consumers instead of being responsive to specific audience of consumers.

The obstacles faced in democratizing television are corporate copyright regime and censorship that cripple convergence and consumer participation, which results in consumer concentration. These stronghold television industries have, create concentration of consumers. This concentration lowers the diversity of consumers, which is essential to news. It also lowers the incentive for companies to negotiate with their consumers and raises the barriers of the consumer’s participation because the company already has a premeditative strategy.

asldkfjasl;dfkjasdVersus Baby watching television on a laptop

When someone watches television using satellite cable compared to the Internet on their computer; there are many differences. Simply, because a person can watch television online that cooperates with their schedule, which differs from scheduled cable or satellite television. Satellite and cable television seem to be staying the same for the past 10 years. All though The New York Times is reporting that The Walt Disney Company, which owns ABC, is developing an app that would live stream ABC content to phones and tablets. Still this live streaming does not cooperate with people schedules, like online television does.

Also online television promotes “democratizing television”. Unlike cable television, online television enables viewers to participate and promote shows. For example, a show that got cancelled called “Global Frequency” owned by Warner Bros., had circulated on in a niche community on the Internet via a Bit Torrent. All though, Warner Bros. possessed the copy write of the show, it was downloaded illegally. This copy write prohibited the niche community to be responsive to the show, halting its convergence. John Rogers, the writer of the show, after learning about his fan niche community said, “It changes the way I will do my next project, I would put my pilot on the Internet in a heart beat”(285). This quote exemplifies online television and regular cable television differs because online television receives more feedback from viewers due to its convergence, which cable television does not do.

The “Golden Era” of television simply differs from cable television and online television because during that era, it was a brand new experience for people. In the 1960’s news dominated the television, along with debuted sports events. The 1970’s brought upon educational shows for children such as Seseme Street and Mister Rogers of PBS. In 1975, sitcoms and comedy shows began to flourish. After the sitcoms and comedies came superstations that delivered mass communications of a subject such as WTBS, ESPN, and Nickelodeon. Then the 1980’s came networks like BET, MTV, and Home Shopping Network. It inevitable evolution of a medium presented to viewers, and now it seems like everything that was deemed “new” is old and people want to only watch what interest them. Different from broadcasting to a broad demographic like in the 60’s and 80’s, during our present day with online television and cable television, media active people have to attitude of “What I want and when I want it”(280) which people during the time of the “golden era” were not accustomed to.

Social media sites like YouTube do enhance participation of democracy because they create fan-based niches. For example if someone likes the show Game Of Thrones, , which may appeal to the niche community. Sites like YouTube promote participation within a niche community in a Democratic way. Fan clubs can be created and they can comment on a short video of a show they watch depicted if they like it or if they did not. The network of the show using the channel of the Internet can see this participation and if enough support is shown by viewers to make an adjustment to the show, the network can respond to the viewers by making those adjustments.

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Final Exam- Question #2, “Democratizing Television”

By Taylor Morello
word count: 619

Television has long been a medium controlled by a handful of media conglomerates. Each and every television show or broadcast we see has been specifically and carefully chosen by a select few. Communication being something that reaches and influences people across the nation, it is surprising to know that something so influential can be decided by so few. The idea of democratizing television gives us as media consumers the option to decide for ourselves what we would like to see and hear. Websites like YouTube specifically give us the option to make our ideas communicated to the masses.

As noted in Henry Jenkins’ Democratizing Television? The Politics of Participation, the idea is to empower readers to submit their own stories and decide what’s important. With YouTube, everyone is able to submit ideas. Image The number of views their video gets is an indication of what is important to people or what they want to hear. While it is also clear which traditional cable television shows are the most popular and important to people, there is an important difference between traditional cable television and participatory television like YouTube. With YouTube, any and every idea is submitted, and anyone can watch every single idea. If ideas are submitted to traditional cable television companies, those companies are still going to weed through the ideas and choose what they think should be communicated to the masses. This is the problem with trying to democratize television. While people may be submitting story ideas to these television companies, or conglomerates, there is still a selection process blocking the choice of stories. With YouTube, that problem is demolished.

While participatory journalism seems helpful to our community, there is also a negative side to it. YouTube brings about the problem of clutter. While it gives us more options for media consumption and stories that are going to bring changes in social life, it can be argued that there is too much of it. The problem is that consumers may be unable to weed out what stories they want to hear, or don’t want to hear, because there is too much offered to them. This could be make traditional cable television look like a way to break through the clutter, there is still the problem of the few who are choosing what we see and hear. As stated in chapter 10, “Each evolution of communication systems brings changes in social life and human consciousness.” This means that communication is extremely important and influential in our society. What we see and hear impacts what we do and the decisions we make in everyday life, so to democratize or not to democratize television is a very important idea.

The current formats of television, for example where democratizing television is applied, are very different from the “golden era” of American television between the 1940s and 1960sImage Not only were television stories only chose by the media companies that ran them, but television at that time didn’t even run for a full 24 hours. The internet, as we know is a 24 hour resource of any and every type of story, but there is no comparison to the glamorized stories that we see on television today.

To conclude, the idea of democratizing television can be both good and bad. While it gives viewers a say in what stories are important and will be communicated to the masses, less controlling, more opinions, and options, it creates a clutter. If democratizing television weren’t limited by those who in the end still choose which stories are aired, it would aid in the open expression of our country’s thoughts and feelings towards different matters. In a perfect world, it would create equality in the communication of ideas.

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